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Fire safety for home owners

The law in Scotland has changed and as of 1 February 2022 every home now needs to have interlinked fire alarms.

Being interlinked means if one alarm goes off, they all go off. You may not always hear the alarm closest to the fire, especially if you’re somewhere else in the house. An interlinked system will alert you immediately and can help save lives.

If you're a homeowner, it's your responsibility to make sure your home meets the new fire alarms standard as soon as possible. If you are worried about what the new legislation means for your home insurance, please speak to your insurance company directly.

What you need to do

Every home must now have:

  • 1 smoke alarm in the room you spend most of the day, usually your living room
  • 1 smoke alarm in every circulation space on each storey, such as hallways and landings
  • 1 heat alarm in the kitchen

All smoke and heat alarms should be mounted on the ceiling and be interlinked. Check the manufacturers guidance on each alarm for instructions on where the alarm should be placed.

If you have a carbon-fuelled appliance, like a boiler, fire, non-electric heater or flue you must also have a carbon monoxide detector. This does not need to be linked to the fire alarms. Gas cookers and hobs do not need a carbon monoxide detector.


If you live in a 3 bedroom, 2 storey house you need 3 smoke alarms and one heat alarm. You may also need carbon monoxide alarms. 

  • 3 linked smoke alarms:
    • on the upstairs landing
    • in the downstairs hall
    • in the living room
  • 1 linked heat alarm in the kitchen
  • 1 carbon monoxide alarm in any room where you have a carbon-fuelled appliance like a boiler, wood-burning fire place or flue. This does not need to be linked to the other alarms

If you live in a 1 bedroom flat, you need 2 smoke alarms and 1 heat alarm. You may also need carbon monoxide alarms. 

  • 2 linked smoke alarms:
    • in the hall
    • in the living room
    • 1 linked heat alarm in the kitchen
  • 1 carbon monoxide alarm in any room where you have a carbon-fuelled appliance like a boiler, wood-burning fire place or flue. This does not need to be linked to the other alarms

If you have an open plan living room and kitchen you only need to have 1 alarm in this space and it should be a heat alarm.

The types of alarm you'll need

There are 2 types of interlinked fire alarms that meet the new rules:

  • sealed battery alarms – which should be tamper-proof long-life (which can be up to 10 years) batteries. You can fit these alarms yourself.
  • mains-wired alarms - these are cheaper than tamper proof long-life battery alarms, but should be installed by a qualified electrician. These should be replaced every 10 years. 

Both types of alarm are interlinked by radio frequency without the need for WiFi.

If the carbon monoxide alarm is battery operated, it must have a sealed battery for the duration of its lifespan, which may be up to 10 years. 


Get help finding a tradesperson by searching the Approved Trader Directory or the Approved Certifier of Construction Scheme.

Smoke alarms and heat alarms

Smoke alarms work by detecting particles of smoke.  Heat alarms work by detecting very high temperature. Heat alarms are less sensitive than smoke alarms and are recommended where there is a risk of false alarms from smoke due to open fireplaces or cooking accidents, for example where you might burn food.

Cost of alarms and what to look out for

The cost for an interlinked system with sealed long-life battery alarms in a two storey house is around £220, if you fit the alarms yourself. There will be an extra cost if you get a tradesperson to fit them for you.

You should:

  • look for a recognised brand
  • use a reputable retailer
  • read online reviews 
  • check that each alarm complies with the following standards - 
    • Smoke alarms: BS EN14604:2005 
    • Heat alarms: BS 5446-2:2003 
    • Carbon monoxide detectors: British Kitemark EN 50291-1

Will your home insurance be affected?

It is unlikely that an existing policy will be affected but this depends on the terms and conditions of your home insurance policy. If you are worried about what the new legislation means for your home insurance you should speak to your insurance company.

What you should do with your old alarms

Most smoke and heat alarms can be recycled, either at home in your recycling bin or at any recycling centre.

Specialist alarms including Telecare systems

Any specialist alarms, for example if you are deaf or have a Telecare system, should be fitted in addition to the interlinked smoke and heat alarms and the carbon monoxide alarm. Do not remove any existing Telecare alarms.

Find out more about Telecare and fire safety.

If you rent

Check what you need to do if you rent through a private landlord or through social housing.


The new legislation does not apply to caravans or mobile homes.


You only need an fire alarm in a garage if you use it as a living area.  If your garage is connected to your home and your boiler is stored there then you will need a carbon monoxide detector.

Help and advice

For more detailed information you can read The Housing (Scotland) Act 1987 (Tolerable Standard) (Extension of Criteria) Order 2019 , and the related guidance.

You can get more information on the new fire alarms legislation, including answers to the most commonly asked questions on the Scottish Government website

For advice on fire safety or to request a Home Fire Safety Visit, contact The Scottish Fire and Rescue Service on 0800 0731 999 or visit the Scottish Fire and Rescue service website 

If you have any concerns about meeting housing standards, contact your local authority

Under the Equality Act, all tenants can ask their landlord to make certain changes to the property to avoid a disabled person being at a disadvantage. This includes fire and smoke alarms for deaf or deafblind people. For advice or help installing alarms if you are elderly or disabled, contact your local Care and Repair service 

If you are concerned about a cold caller or about what a tradesperson is telling you, please call Trading Standards Scotland on 0808 164 6000





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